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Ghost Hunting is the process of investigating locations that are reported to be haunted by ghosts. Typically, a ghost hunting team will attempt to collect evidence claimed to be supportive of paranormal activity. Ghost hunters often utilize a variety of electronic equipment, such as the following types: the EMF meter; digital thermometer; handheld and static digital video cameras, such as thermographic (or infrared) and night vision; digital audio recorder; and computer.


Traditional techniques such as conducting interviews and researching the history of a site are also employed. Some ghost hunters refer to themselves as a paranormal investigator.[1]


While many groups claim to utilize scientific methods in their search for the paranormal, science cannot confirm the existence of ghosts.[2][3] Ghost hunting can be classified as a pseudoscience.


Popularity

The Internet, films (like Ghostbusters), and television programs (like Most Haunted, Ghost Hunters, The Othersiders, and Ghost Adventures), along with the increasing availability of high-tech equipment are thought to be partly responsible for the boom in ghost hunting. Despite its lack of acceptance in academic circles, the popularity of ghost-hunting reality TV shows have influenced a number of individuals to take up the pursuit.[4]


Scores of small businesses selling ghost-hunting equipment, paranormal investigation services, and even ghost counseling are booming outside of their prime season: Halloween. Several companies have introduced devices billed as "ghost detectors," along with the traditional electromagnetic field (EMF) meters, white noise generators, and infrared motion sensors. The paranormal boom is such that some small ghost-hunting related businesses are enjoying increased profits through podcast and web site advertising, books, DVDs, videos, and other commercial enterprises.[5]


One ghost-hunting group reports that the number of people taking their tours has tripled, jumping from about 600 in 2006 to 1,800 in 2008. Another says its membership has doubled. Others point to increased traffic on their websites and message boards as an indication that ghost hunting is becoming more accepted. Participants say that ghost hunting allows them to enjoy the friendship of like-minded people and actively pursue their interest in the paranormal. James Willis, founder of The Ghosts of Ohio group says that his membership has grown to 30 members since it was founded in 1999 and includes both true believers and total skeptics. Willis says his group is "looking for answers, one way or another" and that skepticism is a prerequisite for those who desire to be "taken seriously in this field."[4]


Author John Potts says that the present day pursuit of "amateur ghost hunting" can be traced back to the Spiritualist era and early organizations founded to investigate paranormal phenomena, like London's The Ghost Club and the Society for Psychical Research, but that it is unrelated to academic parapsychology. Potts writes that modern ghost hunting groups ignore scientific method and instead follow a form of "techno-mysticism".[6]


The popularity of ghost hunting has led to some injuries. Unaware that a "spooky home" in Worthington, Ohio was occupied, a group of teenagers stepped on the edge of the property to explore. The homeowner fired on the teenagers automobile as they were leaving, seriously injuring one.[7] Police say a woman who fell three stories to her death was apparently hunting for ghosts at an old University of Toronto building.[8]


An offshoot of ghost hunting is the commercial ghost tour conducted by a local guide or tour operator who is often a member of a local ghost-hunting or paranormal investigation group. Since both the tour operators and owners of the reportedly haunted properties share profits of such enterprises (admissions typically range between $50 and $100 per person), some believe the claims of hauntings are exaggerated or fabricated in order to increase attendance.[9] The city of Savannah, Georgia is said to be the American city with the most ghost tours, having more than 31 as of 2003.[10][11]


Belief statistics

According to a survey conducted in October 2008 by the Associated Press and Ipsos, 34 percent of Americans say they believe in the existence of ghosts.[4] Moreover, a Gallup poll conducted on June 6–8, 2005 showed that one-third (32%) of Americans believe that ghosts exist, with belief declining with age.[12][13] Having surveyed three countries (the United States, Canada, and Great Britain), the poll also mentioned that more people believe in haunted houses than any of the other paranormal items tested, with 37% of Americans, 28% of Canadians, and 40% of Britains believing.[13][14]


Skepticism

Many ghost-hunting groups say they find evidence of something they can't explain through scientific or natural means, yet critics question ghost-hunting's methodology, particularly its use of instrumentation, as there is no scientifically-proven link between the existence of ghosts and cold spot or electromagnetic fields. According to skeptical investigator Joe Nickell, the typical ghost hunter is practicing pseudoscience. Nickell says that ghost hunters often arm themselves with EMF meter, thermometers that can identify cold spots, and wireless microphones that eliminate background noise, pointing out the equipment being used to try to detect ghosts is not designed for the job. "The least likely explanation for any given reading is it is a ghost," maintains Nickell. Orbs of light that show up on photos, he says, are often particles of dust or moisture. "Voices" picked up by tape recorders can be radio signals or noise from the recorder and EMF detectors can be set off by faulty wiring or microwave towers.[4]


According to investigator Benjamin Radford most ghost hunting groups including The Atlantic Paranormal Society TAPS make many methodological mistakes. "After watching episodes of Ghost Hunters and other similar programs, it quickly becomes clear to anyone with a background in science that the methods used are both illogical and unscientific". Anyone can be a ghost investigator, "failing to consider alternative explanations for anomalous ... phenomena", considering emotions and feelings as "evidence of ghostly encounters". "Improper and unscientific investigation methods" for example "using unproven tools and equipment", "sampling errors", "ineffectively using recording devices" and "focusing on the history of the location...and not the phenomena". In his article for Skeptical Inquirer Magazine Radford concludes that ghost hunters should care about doing a truly scientific investigation "I believe that if ghosts exist, they are important and deserve to be taken seriously. Most of the efforts to investigate ghosts so far have been badly flawed and unscientific --- and, not surprisingly, fruitless."[15]


Paranormal researcher Brian Dunning believes that orbs are usually particles of dust that are reflected by light when a picture is taken, sometimes it may be bugs or water droplets. He contends that "there are no plausible hypotheses that describe the mechanism by which a person who dies will become a hovering ball of light that appears on film but is invisible to the eye." He does not believe there is any science behind these beliefs, if there were then there would be some kind of discussion of who, what and why this can happen. In his investigations he can not find any "plausible hypothesis" that orbs are anything paranormal.[16]

Methods and equipment

File:Irthermo.png

A handheld infrared thermometer of the type used by some ghost hunters


Ghost hunters use a variety of techniques and tools to investigate alleged paranormal activity.[17] While there is no universal acceptance among ghost hunters of the following methodologies, a number of these are commonly utilized by ghost hunting groups.[18]


  • Still photography and video: using digital, night vision, infrared, and even disposable cameras.
  • EMF meter: to detect possibly unexplained fluctuations in electromagnetic fields.
  • Tablet PC: to record data, audio, video and even environmental fluctuations such as electromagnetic fields.[18]
  • Ambient temperature measurement: using thermographic cameras, thermal imaging cameras, infrared thermometers, and other infrared temperature sensors. It should be noted that all of these methods only measure surface temperature and not ambient temperature.[19]
  • Digital and analog audio recording: to capture any unexplained noises and electronic voice phenomena (EVPs), that may be interpreted as disembodied voices.
  • Compass: some ghost hunters used compass to determine the location of paranormal spot similar like EMFs.
  • Geiger counter: to measure fluctuations in radiation.
  • Ion meters: to detect an excess of negative ions.
  • Infrared and/or ultrasonic motion sensors: to detect possible anomalous movement within a given area, or to assist in creating a controlled environment where any human movement is detected.
  • Air quality monitoring equipment: to assess the levels of gases such as carbon monoxide, which are thought to contribute to reports of paranormal activity.
  • Infrasound monitoring equipment: to assess the level of sound vibrations.
  • Dowsing rods: usually constructed of brass and bent into an L-shape.
  • Psychics, mediums, or clairvoyants: trance mediums or "sensitive" individuals thought to have the ability to identify and make contact with spiritual entities.
  • Demonologists, exorcists, and clergy: individuals who may say prayers, give blessings, or perform rituals for the purpose of cleansing a location of alleged ghosts, demons, poltergeists, or "negative energy."
  • Lights out: according to ghost hunting enthusiast websites, many ghost hunters prefer to conduct their investigations during "peak" evening hours (midnight to 4 a.m.).
  • Ovilus/Ghost Box: These devices are used by some investigators to provide a possible one-on-one conversation with the dead, although they are experimental in nature.
  • Interviews: collecting testimony and accounts about alleged hauntings.
  • Historical research: researching the history behind the site being investigated.
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